The Nature and Origin of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Particles
We outline two concepts to explain Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), one based on radio galaxies and their relativistic jets and terminal hot spots, and one based on relativistic Super-Novae (SNe) or Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in starburst galaxies, one matching the arrival direction data in the South (the radio galaxy Cen A) and one in the North (the starburst galaxy M82). Ubiquitous neutrino emission follows accompanied by compact TeV photon emission, detectable more easily if the direction is towards Earth. The ejection of UHECRs is last. We have observed particles up to ZeV, neutrinos up to PeV, photons up to TeV, 30 - 300 Hz GW events, and hope to detect soon of order Hz to mHz GW events. Energy turnover in single low frequency GW events may be of order 10^63 erg. How can we further test these concepts? First of all by associating individual UHECR events, or directional groups of events, with chemical composition in both the Telescope Array (TA) Coll. and the Auger Coll. data. Second by identifying more TeV to PeV neutrinos with recent SMBH mergers. Third by detecting the order < mHz GW events of SMBH binaries, and identifying the galaxies host to the stellar BH mergers and their GW events in the range up to 300 Hz. Fourth by finally detecting the formation of the first generation of SMBHs and their mergers, surely a spectacular discovery.
Peter L. Biermann, Laurentiu I. Caramete, Federico Fraschetti, Laszlo A. Gergely, Benjamin C. Harms, Emma Kun, Jon Paul Lundquist, Athina Meli, Biman B. Nath, Eun-Suk Seo, Todor Stanev, Julia Becker Tjus
Arxiv.org (Submitted on 4 Oct 2016)